15) Note: 200 m pointing accuracy refers to “a priori accuracy.” It means that when trying to acquire a target, one must take a 200 m margin in order to be sure to include it. . This high acquisition capability is accompanied by a revisit interval of less than 24 hours to meet both civil and military requirements. The merger took place in May 2010 and was fully integrated in December 2010. Three high-accuracy star trackers (STR) are used for attitude sensing, with separate optical heads. The S/C permits a body-pointing capability with roll and pitch maneuvers, each up to 60º, within a period of 25 s. The solar array design (each panel size of 2.3 m x 1.0 m) introduces LPS (Lightweight Panel Structure) and triple-junction GaAs solar cells (RWE-3G with integral diode, 27% efficiency); these new developments were supported by ESA/ESTEC. 5) Online Data Access Services: retrieving products from the online access archives offered through the HMA. As a consequence, the instrument is integrated inside the bus. The GEO-Information Services division will offer: • A one-stop shop for data from the SPOT-4 and -5 missions, from the TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X satellites, from FormoSat-2, and from the Pleiades constellation. Given the dual nature of this system, two types of access are defined to schedule the satellites’ tasks: - The Defense channel used by Ministry of Defense beneficiaries for High Priority Defense programming requests. The PLEIADES-HR satellites will benefit from technology improvements in various fields which will allow achieving, at an affordable price, performances once reserved to ambitious military spacecrafts. A very important operational criteria is the devivery of the data products for the commercial customers in record time. The spacecraft solar panels (GaAs cells of 5 m2) provides a power of 1.5 kW EOL of 33.6 V at summer solstice (mean power of 850 W). Figure 13: Three pictures on the Mecca ”tower clock” acquired by Pléiades 1B every 90 s in a single pass to see the minutes needle moving ! With the availability of ASAP-S on Soyuz, the ASAP launch capability on Ariane vehicles has been retired. They all had children by gods (except Merope, who married Sisyphus). Each Pléiades Neo satellite, based on the Airbus S950 optical platform, will add half a million km² of imagery per day to Airbus’ catalogue, and bring first rate performance: Higher agility for increased scene acquisition density over area of interest and stereo imaging, thanks to Control Momentum Gyroscopes and compact design Figure 22: Image of Bora Bora Island in Polynesia observed by Pleiades-1A on January 3, 2012 (image credit: CNES) 46), • The Pleiades-1A satellite imager captured the first panchromatic satellite images 3 days after its successful launch from the Kourou launch site (French Guiana) via a Russian Soyuz ST rocket on December 16, 2011. The Fregat upper stage used a new purpose-built payload dispenser developed for Arianespace's Soyuz missions. Legend to Figure 8: The payloads of the Soyuz launch vehicle include the Pleiades 1A satellite, pictured at top, and four ELISA satellites, two of which are seen at bottom. This weird viewing principle (Figure 37) allows all the detectors to view the same landscape. PLEIADES delivers optical high resolution products consisting in a Panchromatic image, into which is merged a four multispectral bands image, orthorectified on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM). Indeed, studies in close interaction with public sector which answer to the requirements of the Ministry of Ecology specified in the Plan d’Applications Satellitaires, but also to other Ministries Requirements (Internal Affairs, Agriculture). The size of the detector array assembly is 5 x 6000 (30,000 pixels or samples in cross-track) with a pixel size of 13 µm. It contains a large amount of bright nebulous material and several hundred stars, of which six or seven can be seen by the unaided eye and have figured prominently in the myths and literature of many cultures. B1= 510-590 (green), As Pleiades is a dual-service system - there are also two operators sharing the system according to predetermined quotas. The basic data products of Pleiades are level 0 and level 1 imagery (up to orthorectified imagery). Thanks to the huge satellite agility obtained with control momentum … The Pléiades also share the same orbital plane as the SPOT 6 and 7, forming a larger constellation with 4 satellites, 90° apart from one another. The Pleiades-1A satellite is capable of providing orthorectified color data at 0.5-meter resolution (roughly comparable to GeoEye-1) and revisiting any point on Earth as it covers a total of 1 million square kilometers (approximately 386,102 square miles) daily. The HMA project focuses on defining and providing five interfaces: 1) Catalog Service: browsing and retrieving metadata on collections and products across collaborating HMA catalogs, 2) Ordering Service: for products identified in a catalog, 3) Programming Service: submitting requests for new acquisitions to the HMA partner missions’ ground segments, 4) Mission Planning Service: facilitating preparation of programming requests. This agility coupled with particularly dynamic image acquisition programing make the Pleiades system very responsive to specific user requirements. The size of the observed image is close to 400 mm and is analyzed in 30,000 samples in Pan and 7,500 in MS.. Watch video Pleiades-1B satellite launch. Cartography, geology, agriculture, forest, hydrology, Table 8: Optical system identification for possible user needs, The Pleiades ground segment is composed of a set of user centers located in France, Sweden, Spain and, optionally, in Italy, all of them being interfaced with a dual center in France. The earlier memorandum of understanding was followed by a Memorandum of Agreement (MoA), for the ORFEO system definition step, between the French space agency (CNES) and the Italian space agency (ASI). Several key issues such as response to crisis, urban planning, human pressure on coastlines, watershed cartography, forest management are thoroughly studied. Attitude and orbit determination: An autonomous orbit determination is performed by a DORIS receiver. About 70 geographical sites related to almost 130 thematic studies have been selected in the framework of PUTC. Like other 0.5m resolution sensors, these satellites collect both panchromatic and RGB & NIR multispectral data. For example, detectors non-uniformity can be measured in front of a integrating sphere during on-ground tests, and the camera best focus can be determined using a collimator on an optical facility, but both of these parameters are expected to vary slightly in orbit and therefore must be updated after launch. Covering swath width of 20 kilometers, Pléiades' photos could reveal details as small as 0.5 meters. 31): - to ensure a good reactivity of the system in order to satisfy the urgent needs, - to minimize scheduling conflicts within the dual use framework, - to acquire image in any direction following, for example, coastlines or river routes as so to optimize programming for instance in a crisis case (flooding, tsunami, etc. • On Dec. 5, 2012, Pleiades-1B acquired its first images. The proven agility and reactivity of Pléiades satellites is a key asset to offer in-depth archives of high quality satellite imagery anywhere in the world. • Simultaneous stereoscopic or tri-stereoscopic acquisitions mode: This acquisition mode employs a variation of the one-pass mode. Hence, the mass of the new generation Pleiades spacecraft is only 1/3 that of its predecessor SPOT-5 with a mass of 3000 kg. Figure 10: Image of the Soyuz launch site ELS (Ensemble de Lancement Soyouz) in Kourou French Guinea which launched the Pleiades-HR1 spacecraft (image credit: ESA), Figure 11: Flight sequence of the Soyuz launcher from the Guiana Space Centre to orbit the Pleiades, ELISA and SSOT satellites (image credit: Arianespace), Launch: The Pleiades-1B spacecraft was launched on December 02, 2012 (UTC) on a Soyuz STA/Fregat launcher from Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana (launch provider: Arianespace). 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