FAST FACTS. Thistle. It is adapted to a wide range of soil conditions, and spreads vigorously by wind-borne seeds and by way of its extensive, creeping root system. The Canada thistle is part of the Cirsium genus, in the subtribe Carduinae, trube Cardueae and family Astreracae. Despite its name, the plant was in-troduced from Europe, and is the only thistle, native or introduced, with … However, it is difficult to distinguish the two flower types based on appearance. Roots are edible but often cause flatulence. A leaf tea made from Canada thistle is used as a tonic and diuretic and has been used for tuberculosis. %%EOF Canada thistle is an aggressive weed that can be found growing in gardens and lawns throughout the United States. Its leaves have sharp spines along the edges. Canada thistle or Canadian thistle, featured here, is native to Eurasia, where it is known as creeping thistle, due to its ability to spread via roots into dense patches. Legal status: Canada thistle is considered a noxious weed in 46 states including Indiana. The Canada thistle is a perennial species of flowering plant in the Asteraceae family. Bracts have spineless tips. 0 Canada Thistle Facts. Similar species: Canada thistle is distinguished from all other thistles by creeping lateral roots, dense clonal growth; and small dioecious flower heads (meaning male and female flowers are produced on separate plants). Seeds are often spread by mowing after flowering has begun. Leaves. Flowering generally occurs from July to August. Female flowers have a pleasant vanilla-like aroma. Similar Species. However, it is an invasive exotic weed that competes fiercely with native plants, and its presence degrades the native ecosystems it infests. Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) is a persistent perennial weed that causes significant crop yield losses. Canada thistle was introduced to North America in the late 1700s. The leaves are oblong, usually deeply cut, and have spiny, toothed edges. 2. Late spring (May/June) burns for three consecutive years stimulates seed germination and kills seedlings. Leaves: Simple, alternate, lance-shaped, tapering, irregularly lobed, with spiny, toothed margins, stalkless. Canada thistle grows in a variety of habitats with full or partial sun and is often found in disturbed areas such as roadsides, trails, pastures, and recently flooded areas. Because of its contribution to the persistence of the weed, Canada thistle's extensive root system must be the target of an effective control program. Canada thistle has long been one of the most problematic weeds in Iowa and the northern corn belt. "»ÀvuƒÜùÕ6— èf°k€üÏÀ”÷ À %1Š Readily regenerates from root fragments. True thistles have spines along the leaf margins and their flower heads are generally pink-purple and surrounded by bracts that are typically spiny. Directly below the flower petals are several rows of overlapping floral bracts, or tiny leaf-like structures, that lack sharp spines. Canada thistle (California thistle, creeping thistle, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Asteraceae), is a perennial weed of pastures, rangelands and agricultural lands in many temperate areas of the world.It is native to southeastern Europe and North Africa. It is difficult to control because its extensive root system allows it to recover from control attempts. Canada thistle has male and female flowers; Leaves can be chewed to relieve a tooth ache. hÞÄXmoÛ6þ+ü¸a°ø.QCÀvê6@šyÝjøƒf«±0G6,yiÿýî(Q¦Uù%Y×!8ðHwLJå& #‚)Â#h4ᡂ6$’sh#"%N"umL”DpF¸Á ŒxPˆÄ)Ép It reproduces through both seed and root regeneration, but the latter is the most successful. Chemical: Foliar spray glyphosate during the early bolting phase when plants are 6-10” tall, during the bud to flower phase, or rosettes in the fall; foliar spray with clopyralid or metsulfuron-methyl. It also invades croplands, pastures, lawns, gardens, roadsides, ditches and waste sites. Executive Office Montana Weed Control Association, Inc. PO Box 315, Twin Bridges, MT 59754 (406) 684-5590 | (888) 664-4153 (fax) endstream endobj 174 0 obj <>/Metadata 5 0 R/Pages 168 0 R/StructTreeRoot 9 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 175 0 obj <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 176 0 obj <>stream is a creeping perennial that reproduces from seed and vegetative roots. (When we first moved here, the place was overrun with thistles. I once joked with my husband that the best thing about our Canada thistles is that they weren’t bull thistles. Patches of the troublesome weed are likely made up of only one plant with a shared root system. It is also known as cursed thistle, probably due to the fact that chopping the roots with a plow effectively spreads the thistle across a field. • Combining control methods is the best form of Canada Quick Facts • Canada thistle is a creeping perennial that reproduces from vegetative buds in its root system and from seed. It invades undisturbed areas such as prairies, savannas, glades, dunes, streambanks, sedge meadows and forest openings. While modern herbicides have greatly reduced problems caused by Canada thistle in crop fields, it is still a formidable foe in pastures, roadsides and other less intensely managed areas. Flowers: Numerous, small (0.5-0.75” wide), purple to pink (rarely white) terminal flower heads. Bull thistles (Cirsium vulgare) are exactly that – bullish. 173 0 obj <> endobj Quick facts. hÞb```¢µ¬öL" ÂÀeaà8Á°ÇqÃ*ˆ0“ÒŒ¼eF‰ŽŽŽ°$†bFuaA- N«È¦–ßK°¾`ØÙ ÃÀ-À¸ŽÿBøŽØ'NHÜgMàYÆ Ù¸tªþ¼‰Š‡”—(z7@ efðnd ;–Gd6#HŠA"í7˜ËÀÈ` þÑ!© As mentioned earlier, they thrive in disturbed soils.) Canada Thistle Cirsium arvense (aka Creeping thistle) Overview: A colony-forming, aggressive perennial, that spreads primarily by its creeping root system. Canada thistle is found in natural areas such as prairies, savannas, glades and dunes where there has been disturbance. Blooms June-September. Similar species: Canada thistle is distinguished from all other thistles by creeping lateral roots, dense clonal growth; and small dioecious flower heads (meaning male and female flowers are produced on separate plants). Mechanical: Repeated pulling and mowing (minimum three times per growing season) weakens roots; mow when flower buds are formed but have not yet opened. Thistle is the common name given to some plants in several genera of the Cynareae tribe, family Asteraceae. It it also different from other native North American species given its large roots … Below are some questions to help you determine whether your thistle is native or not: 1. can colonize in an area 3 to 6 feet in diameter in one year. Is the thistle spiny along the entire length of the stem? Canada thistle is an invasive species. Fun Facts: Canada thistle is an excellent pollinator plant supplying nectar to bees for honey. Readily regenerates from root fragments. Canada thistle is a creeping perennial that reproduces from vegetative buds in its root system and from seed. Common Name: Canada thistle, Californian thistle, Canadian thistle, creeping thistle, field thistle, corn thistle, perennial thistle, field thistle. It differs from other species in the same genus given its dioecious flowers. 1. It stores food energy in its extensive root system both to survive the winter and to fuel the plant's reproductive drive the following season. • Itisdifficulttocontrolbecause itsextensiverootsystem allows it to recover from control attempts. Facts about Canada Thistle in one big list. An aggressive spreader with spear-like foliage topped with pointy, barb-like hairs, this invader does its very best to intimidate. It also prefers wet areas with fluctuating water levels, such as streambanks, sedge meadows and wet prairies. Fruits & seeds: Small, light brown with a tuft of tan hairs loosely attached to the tip to enable wind dispersal. Herbaceous perennial, 2-6.5’ tall with upright, grooved stems that branch near the top of the plant. 3. This thistle is also commonly known as the creeping thistle and field thistle. Canada thistle develops seed sparingly and may produce 1,000 to 1,500 seeds per flowering shoot. Thistles are members of the sunflower family (Asteraceae) and can be annual, biennal, or perennial. Canada thistle is an aggressive perennial, seedlings emerge mid- to-late spring and form rootstocks when they are 3 weeks old. Stems are 30–150 cm, slender green, and freely branched, smooth and glabrous (having no trichomes or glaucousness), mostly without spiny wings. Plants host agricultural pests such as sod-web worm, bean aphid, stalk borer, and cucumber mosaic virus. Canada thistle (aka creeping thistle) is a determined weed if ever there was one. Ontario Weeds Act - noxious; Other provinces - noxious in AB, BC, SK, MB, and QC; Canadian Federal Seeds Act - Class 3 ; U.S. Federal Noxious Weed - no The Canada thistle is the only thistle with female and male flowers appearing on separate plants. Chatwith customer service M-F 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. © Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources | Site requirements | Accessibility | Legal | Privacy | Employee resources, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. If allowed to go to flower, the flower is a purple pom-pom shape that will be produced in clusters at the top of the plant. Biological: Stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus litura), bud weevil (Larinus planus), stem gall fly (Urophora cardui), and foliage feeder (Cassida rubiginosa). Canada thistle is on Control noxious weed list meaning you must prevent the spread of this plant. Stems are branched, often slightly hairy, and Canada thistle has small (3/4 inch diameter), compact flower heads that appear on the upper stems. Canada thistle is a long-lived perennial that usually grows 2 to 3 feet tall and bears alternate, dark green leaves that vary in size. One Canada thistle plant can produce more than 5,000 seeds. Canada thistle is a 2 to 5 foot tall herbaceous perennial with branched, grooved and slender stems that become covered in hair as the plant grows. Wildflowers Of WisconsinWild… A list of 1 interesting Canada Thistle facts! 224 0 obj <>stream View Canada thistle pictures in our photo gallery! %PDF-1.6 %âãÏÓ Fun Facts about the Thistle The Thistle has been Scotlands national emblem for many centuries and is one of the most well known symbols of Scotland. Growth … It is native throughout Europe and northern Asia, and widely introduced elsewhere. Stems emerge from a basal rosette reaching 1 to 4 feet tall that branch into clusters of lavender to deep rose-purple flowers that are urn- shaped and bractless. 4. Canada thistle is a good nectar plant for bees and butterflies, and goldfinches eat the seeds. Green on both sides; smooth early but becoming pubescent with maturity. 202 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<208D379BADF28750EE1033D046A74A99><2997AEA60A72E64984067F3AA7B7D6F3>]/Index[173 52]/Info 172 0 R/Length 133/Prev 811598/Root 174 0 R/Size 225/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Species Assessment Groups (SAG) were assembled to recommend a legal classification for each species considered for NR 40. It is a non-native invasive species from Europe, and landowners with Canada thistle on their property are obligated to take measures to control it. The perennial weed thrives in sunlit areas. For more information on control techniques, visit the Canada thistle factsheet [exit DNR] by University of Wisconsin-Extension. It also produces taproots that may grow more than 6’ deep. Canada thistle spreads rapidly through horizontal roots that give rise to large infestation patches nearby and out-competing native plants. 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